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The mineral salts are:

  1. calcium
  2. magnesium
  3. potassium
  4. sodium
  5. phosphate
  6. sulphate
  7. carbonate
  8. chloride
  9. iron
  10. iodine 

Manufactured foods are partially robbed of these essential minerals. This is clearly seen when white flour is compared with the whole wheat, and polished rice with the brown rice: 

                        Per Cent of Ash

White Flour                 .50

Entire Wheat               1.75

Polished Rice              .40

Unpolished Rice        1.00

The following foods are valuable sources of calcium, phosphate, and iron:

Almonds         milk, whole Barley

beans, dried bread, entire wheat



egg, yolk

figs, dried lentils, 

dried oatmeal, dry olives


peas, dried raisins

turnip tops



wheat bran

Calcium particularly found in:


beans, dried cauliflower

egg, yolk

figs, dried lentils,

dried milk, 

whole oatmeal,

dry olives


peas, dried prunes

turnip tops


wheat bran 

Phosphate particularly found in: 



dried beans

egg, yolk

peas, dried walnuts

entire wheat

lentils, dried oatmeal



wheat bran 

Iron particularly found in: 

beans, dried bran,


egg yolk         

 green vegetables 

Other minerals have their chief food sources as follows: 

Sodium                       Potassium

bread                             nuts

fruits                          table salts

Milk                           vegetables







potatoes                     Sulphur


soy beans

(We may expect that in health and on an ordinary diet the sulphur requirement will usually be covered when the protein supply is adequate.)

As a rule appreciable amounts of Iodine are contained in: 



green peas






Where iodine is lacking in the soil it is also lacking in the water. In such regions goiter is more prevalent than elsewhere. 


A man can live for weeks without food, for days without water; but only a few minutes without oxygen. Oxygen makes possible the utilization of food. It is an odorless, tasteless, colorless gas, slightly heavier than air. 

In chemical combination with hemoglobin, oxygen is carried in the blood stream. Oxygen oxidizes the elements yielding heat and energy. Thus anemia lowers the energy. It is just as important to have an abundant supply of pure oxygen as it is to have an abundant supply of food elements. 


The carbohydrate foods are non-nitrogenous foods. The carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Their energy is used by the body either in the form of work or heat. They include all vegetables and fruits containing either starch or sugar. Those which produce the most energy are:





All starchy foods require a great amount of cooking than other foods, because the starch is surrounded by a covering which cannot be digested when raw.

The principal starchy foods are: 


barley, natural brown

beans, dried bread



lentils  peas





spaghetti, whole wheat 


Fats have the greatest food value of all foods, nearly two and one-half times as great as that of carbohydrates. 

The principle fats are: 

almond oil


coconut oil

cottonseed oil

sesame oil, cream

egg yolk

olive oil

peanut oil

soy bean oil 


The proteins are nitrogenous foods, and are derived chiefly from: 




soy beans and other beans



Though not so easily digested as the carbohydrates, these foods furnish energy and build up the body. 


Though we do not as yet thoroughly understand the vitamins, yet it is generally considered that they are to maintain health, and to prevent scurvy, pellagra, beriberi, and other diseases. 

Vitamin A is soluble in fats, and although exposure to oxygen weakens it, it is not affected by heat. 

Deficiency of vitamin A causes retarded growth, increased susceptibility to infections, especially of the lungs, nose, and eyes, inability to see well at night, and makes the skin and hair dry and scaly. 

The average daily requirement of vitamin A is about 7000 units. The following list indicates the best sources of vitamin A: 

One ounce of                          Units

Spinach        contains about           3000

carrots, raw     ”                      ”          1000

cheese             ”                      ”          1000

leafy lettuce    ”                      ”          500

butter              ”                      ”          600

squash            ”                      ”          700 

Other sources of vitamin A, are: 

Apricots; artichokes; yellow asparagus; avocados; bananas; beans; beet greens; blackberries; broccoli; Brussels sprouts; cantaloupes; celery; unbleached corn; yellow corn meal; yellow dandelion; dates; escarole; green beans; kaIe; oranges; parsley; peaches; yellow peas; peas, dried; pineapple; prunes; sweet potatoes; tomatoes; tomatoes, yellow; turnip greens; water cress. 

Vitamin B

Vitamin B complex is compounded of vitamin B1 or thiamin, vitamin B2 or riboflavin, and vitamin B6 or nicotinic acid. As to the daily requirement there is no definite knowledge. Lack of these vitamins causes pellagra, beriberi, loss of appetite, sore lips, intestinal indigestion with constipation and retarded growth. 

Foods rich in vitamin B complex are:

Beans, red kidney; beans, soy; cabbage; carrots; cereals, whole grain; cheese; eggs; flour, whole wheat; kale; mustard greens; peanuts; peas, fresh green or dried; prunes; spinach; tomato juice; turnip greens; wheat germ; brewer’s yeast. 

Vitamin B1 or thiamin, is the anti-neuritis vitamin. It is mainly found in whole grain cereal and nuts. Alkalis and heat weaken it, and hence it is best obtained from raw foods. 

The average daily requirements of vitamin B1 for infants is about 50 units, and about 250 units for adults. Daily requirement for mothers during pregnancy is 600 units or more. 

The best sources of this vitamin are: 

One ounce of                                                  units

wheat germ              contains about               200

prunes                           ”          ”                      20

peanuts                       ”          ”                      60

spinach                       ”          ”                      20

malted milk               ”          ”                      50

canned corn               ”          ”                      15

whole wheat bread     ”          ”                      22

almonds                     ”          ”                      25 

Other sources of Vitamin B1 are:

Apples; avocados; bananas; cauliflower; dates; grapefruit; beans, green; beans, lima; beans, navy; beets; brussels sprouts; cantaloupe; carrots; lettuce; onions; parsnips; pears; pineapple; plums; tangerines. 

Vitamin C

It is the anti-scorbutic vitamin, and is also called Cevitamic Acid or Ascorbic Acid. It is found mainly in citrus fruits, and though it is soluble in water, It is weakened by oxygen or alkalies. 

Deficiency of vitamin C causes scurvy, sore and bleeding gums, sore and swollen joints, and a tendency to hemorrhage. The average daily requirement is 300 units for infants and 1000 units for adults. 

Its main sources are:

One ounce of                                                            units

orange juice                 contains about                     250

lemon                          ”                      ”                      250

grapefruit                    ”                      ”                      250

raw cabbage                ”                      ”                      150

tomatoe juice              ”                      ”                      100

strawberry juice          ”                      ”                      100

cranberries                  ”                      ”                      80

pineapple juice            ”                      ”                      40 

Other sources of Vitamin C:

Apples; fresh asparagus; avocados; bananas; beans, green; beet greens; endive; greens; kale; lettuce; onions; peaches. 

Vitamin D

It is the anti-rachitic vitamin, and its chief source is sunshine. Deficiency of this vitamin causes rickets, delayed dentition, bow-legs, abdominal protrusion, and weakness. The average dally requirements for infants is from 500 to 1000 units, and from 500 to 600 units for adults. 

Besides in sunshine, this vitamin is found mainly in: 

5 drops viosterol in oil contains about 800 units 

1 ounce egg yolk contains about 50-100 units 

1 ounce butter contains about 25 units. It is used in the prevention of rickets and other bone diseases, such as osteomalacia and non-union after a fracture, infantile convulsions, and arthritis. 

Scientists and child specialists, as well as health experts the world over, insist that every baby and every growing child should be exposed o the direct sunshine every day if possible. But since children cannot always get enough sunshine in some parts of the United States during many months of the year, they may need viosterol or other vitamin “D” preparations from September to June, and on all other days when they are not given a sun-bath with most of their clothing removed. 

Health records show that the number of baby sicknesses and baby deaths starts to climb at the beginning of winter season — due to colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, and influenza. This may be due to lack of sunshine or vitamin D. 

Vitamin E

It is the anti-sterility vitamin. It is soluble in oil, and is not affected by heating or cooking. Deficiency of this vitamin causes habitual abortion and sterility. 

An ordinary diet supplies all the vitamin E that is needed, but in case of habitual and repeated abortion, an additional supply of vitamin E may be necessary, though the average requirement is not known. 

The best sources of vitamin E are: 

Cottonseed oil; wheat germ oil; rice germ oil; whole grain cereals; leafy vegetables. 

Other sources of Vitamin E: 

Milk; vegetable oils; oats; egg yolk; corn; peas. 

Vitamin K

The coagulation vitamin, forms prothrombin. The necessary average daily amount is not known. 

It is found in: spinach and other leafy vegetables; alfalfa; tomatoes; cereals; cabbage; soy bean oil; cereals. 

This vitamin prevents hemorrhage in newborn infants and in cases of jaundice and other diseases of the liver and intestines, though it has not been found helpful in hemophilia and menorrhagia.

 Other vitamin-like substances which have been partially investigated and described include the following:

 Vitamin K from blue grass juice, which seems to cause more rapid growth.

Vitamin P 

Vitamin P. or citrin is helpful in purpura and some types of hemorrhage, and is obtained from lemon peel. 

Vitamin F. from fatty acids, seemingly promotes growth.